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英语学习必备习惯将问与答进行到底

核心导读:练口语的时候,常去英语角,而在那里,除了用到前面所提到的一些技巧(包括引用电影台词和复述改述相关材料)之外,最常规的聊天方式就是问与答(以下称Q&A),而今天要介绍的就是如何利用这样的方法和原则来最大程度的提升口语练习机会。 原则一:准备一些问题 有的放矢的去英语角,这点已经毋庸置疑了,除了准备一些材料之外,还要懂得准备问题,因为毕竟不是所有人都对我们准备的材料感兴趣,或者从另一个角度说,如果通过提问将话题引到我们准备的材料上,给人感觉非常自然,即使他不是很感兴趣,也会在早

练口语的时候,常去英语角,而在那里,除了用到前面所提到的一些技巧(包括引用电影台词和复述改述相关材料)之外,最常规的聊天方式就是问与答(以下称Q&A),而今天要介绍的就是如何利用这样的方法和原则来最大程度的提升口语练习机会。

原则一:准备一些问题

有的放矢的去英语角,这点已经毋庸置疑了,除了准备一些材料之外,还要懂得准备问题,因为毕竟不是所有人都对我们准备的材料感兴趣,或者从另一个角度说,如果通过提问将话题引到我们准备的材料上,给人感觉非常自然,即使他不是很感兴趣,也会在早期比较配合我们的对话,也就给了我们锻炼的机会。否则的话,就会出现以下的情况:

A: Hi, nice to meet you.

B: Nice to see you too.

A: What shall we talk about?

B: I don’t know. It’s up to you.

A: I can talk about everything.

B: Me too.

A: So what shall we talk about?

B: Whatever you like. So what do you like to talk about?

A:…

两人无言,只有泪千行。但是如果我们有所准备或者考虑,情况可能就完全不一样。比如,我们所熟悉的材料是关于广告的,那么要设计一些广告方面的问题,一般三个就足够了,具体的对话可以是这样的:、

A: Hi, nice to meet you.

B: Nice to see you too.

A: What shall we talk about?

B: Well, I would like to ask you a few questions if I may.

A: Sure, go ahead.

B: Have you ever been annoyed by those commercials between TV series when you are desperate to know about what’s going on next?

A: Yes. It spoils the whole evening sometimes.

B: Have you ever been bothered by those junk commercial messages during midnight when you are just about to have a sweet dream?

A: Well, yes.

B: Have you ever been confused by those booming advertisements or commercials so that you can hardly decide which one to follow and which product to buy?

A: I agree.

B: Then it is high time that we should prohibit commercials during golden hours…. (然后加入自己所准备的话题和内容)

原则二:给出多句话的回答

这个原则主要是针对那些回答问题惯用一两句话或者一两个字的人,但凡这样的情况出现,这个Q&A的过程就会变成一个审问的过程。使得提问人和答问人都会显得非常郁闷。比如:

A: What’s you name?

B: York.

A: How old are you?

B: 27.

A: Where do you come from?

B: Chengdu

A: Do you like the English Corner here?

B: No.

A: Why?

B: Because I see you.

这种乒乓球式的一来一回,最后都不会有什么好的结果。练习口语是我们的目的,所以一定要利用别人提问的机会多说一些,这样才会对所说的话题更加熟悉,同时还可以兼顾到语音语调以及词汇句型的升级,也让听者觉得你是有表达欲望和交流欲望的。比如:

A: What’s your name?

B: Feel free to call me York. This is a name easy to remember as it never fails to remind people of the names of a state and a city in the United States—the New York State and the New York City. Actually it was given by my first English teacher in middle school and it is my personal favorite English name and I have used it since then.

后面的任何问题都可以如法炮制,只要回答者能够用多句话来回答问题,交流的感觉会变得更加好。平时要有意识的训练自己用5句话回答任何问题,这样的话就可以在面对任何问题的时候都不会没有话说(当然,这个训练的目的是为了大家抓住锻炼口语多说,不意味着任何问题从实质上讲都需要说5句话,5是个虚数也是个实数),包括那些你不知道答案的问题,比如:

A: Do you know how many stars are there in the sky? (口头逼到可以不太讲究语序)

B: This is a question too complicated for me to answer. As far as I know, the number of stars is uncertain since science and technology are developing everyday and we can not be so sure about the number of stars we have discovered, not to mention those unknown to us. The fact of matter is we need to see beyond those numbers, which means what those number means to us matters much more than the number itself. That is basically how I look at this question.

相信大家可以看出来了,即使不能对问题的答案有一个确定的答复,也可以就提问者的动机或者问题答案对我们的意义着手进行进一步的陈述,最关键的是把自己的观点说出来,这样不论是英语口头表达和个人的自信心,都会得到相应的提高。

原则三:有铺垫的提问

大家都知道在英语角要做一个多说多练的人,但是如果遇到一个人喜欢主导谈话,不给别人机会发表观点,我们的策略师有机会的时候利用机会,没有机会的时候创造机会然后再利用机会。一般喜欢占据主导的说话者通常也会喜欢被别人提问,这样很有当明星的感觉,每次去英语角和开记者招待会一样,虚荣心可以得到极大的满足。最关键的是每次提问的人只会怯生生地说出一句话,而回答的人可以说出长篇大论的东西,所以最后的结果就是提问者练听力,说话者练口语。遇到这样的情况,突破口就在提问的环节,只要我们提问的时候用N句话,这样就很容易锻炼到我们自己的表达。同时,如果有铺垫的提问也会给回答者一些时间思考答案,他本能不会排斥,毕竟贸然打断提问是一种特别不礼貌的举动。具体的操作方法是首先说出问题的范围,让他有心理准备,然后再呈现出自己对这个问题感兴趣的原因,让他明白提问者的动机,再慢慢的提出这个问题。最起码一个问题也可以用五句话来提,比如how old are you?一个简单问年龄的问题,也可以有很多形式的铺垫,比如 I would like to ask a question about your age if I may. (当然,如果对方直接说no, you may not 或者 sorry, it is not a polite question to ask. 那可以作罢,换下一个问题。)然后接着说出自己对这个问题感兴趣的原因,I don’t mean to intrude in your privacy but as is indicated in lots of cases, people at different age tend to speak and behave in different ways even though their personality and value system have not changed much. That is to say, it is generally possible to tell how old the person is or how he looks at some question or topic by studying his speaking and behaviors. I happened to notice that you do have a special perspective upon the issue or topic we just talked about and it is kind of rare for people at your age to think in this way if I am right about your age. So would you please tell me how old you are? Or are you between 25 and 30? 这样的提问效果显而易见。

原则四:就回答提问

在Q&A的过程中,很多时候大家会觉得问了一个问题后就无话可说了,于是会出现冷场的局面,然后一拍两散,去寻找新的搭档,重演旧的悲剧。其实,如果两个人只要都稍微经过练习,就能做到一直谈下去,特别是在英语角这个地方,除非他累了。具体的方法就是,与其去想几十个问题,还不如先想好一个问题,然后在对方回答的过程中,顺着对方的思路去开发新的问题,这样一来向对方传达出你对他回答的兴趣,又给他不断表达的机会,然后用上面一个原则表达自己的观点,效果也是很好的。比如:

A: What’s your name?

B: York.

A: Very special name, isn’t it? Do you like it?

B: Sure. It was given by my first English teacher in middle school and it became my personal favorite English name.

A: Interesting. It seems that he influenced you a great deal. What’s he like?

B: Actually I don’t remember much about him but what impressed me most was his easygoing personality and he is a kind guy too.

A: Well, middle school student generally hate teachers, don’t they?

B: Yes, because we were too active and hated being controlled and disciplined. But I would like to say that he is an exception because he was ready to help any student in need and he seemed to understand us better, sometimes much better than our parents did.

A: Is there any specific example that you would like to share with me? I’m really interested in it.

为了让大家看得清楚这个原则的应用,这里的问答就没有采用多句的原则,效果自然不言自明。最有默契的搭档是这样做的:A铺垫提问,B陈述回答+提问,A陈述回答+提问,循环往复,以至无穷。

大家在掌握了这个额技巧以后,更重要的还是要明白说话的语言质量,内容以及逻辑性,这也是以后的文章会不断提到的。其实英语交流和中文交流一样,如果大家遇到了什么问题,首先考虑在中文交流过程中怎么解决的,很大程度上可以类推到英语中的。


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